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The Islamic calendar, the Hijri, is based on the lunar cycle. There are 12 months in each year and every month begins with the new moon.
Thus the Islamic year falls short of the international Gregorian one by 11 days. The festivals of the Muslims hence travel through each season every few years.
The cycle of years is divided into segments of 30 years. Of these, 19 years have 354 days each and the next 11 years have an extra day each.
The Islamic week has 7 days of which Jumma or Friday is the most important and sacred being the day of rest.
Also the day of assembly, this tradition was instituted by Prophet Muhammad who claimed it to be a divine command.
According to Islamic India Festival the Islamic calendar is based on the lunar cycle and has 12 months in a year.
According to the Islamic Calendar belief, Friday is the best day on which the sun rises, the day on which Adam, the first man, was taken into Paradise and turned out of it, the day on which he repented and on which he died.
It will also be the day of judgment. There is also a certain hour on Friday, known only to god, on which a Muslim obtains all that he asks from god. Therefore Muslims pray on Friday hoping that the time they pray is this auspicious hour.
Special prayers are performed on Friday, and a Muslim who neglects three consecutive Friday prayers is unpardonable.
Ramzan, the ninth month, is considered an extremely holy month. This entire month is ordained for fasting by the Quran for all adult Muslims (see also Introduction to Islam).
According to the Quran, the fast of Ramzan has been instituted so that believers may cultivate piety; this particular month was designated because it is the month during which Muhammad received the first of the Quran's revelations.
The fast during Ramzan begins each day at dawn and ends immediately at sunset. During the fast period, Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink, or smoke.
Before retiring for the night, special congregational prayers are offered in which long passages from the Quran are recited. The day after the end of Ramzan is Id-ul-Fitr, the festival that celebrates the breaking of the fast with special prayers and festivities.
Dhul Hijjah is reserved for pilgrimages to Mecca and Medina, known as the Haj. Devout Muslims The Islamic Calendar desire to go on the Haj pilgrimage at least once in a lifetime.
The Islamic calendar begins with the journey of Prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD.
This journey is called the Hijra and the era starting in that year is the Hijri or Hijrah. Muharram 1416 of the Hijrah calendar corresponds to the Gregorian.