There are ten Gurus in the Sikh religion. Guru Nanak was succeeded by nine other Gurus. Guru Arjun (1563-1606) the fifth Guru, compiled the "Granth Sahib" (Noble Book) and the tenth Guru, Govind Singh, gave it its final form. The two books are also known as "Adi Granth" (Initial Book), and "Dasam Granth" (Book of the Tenth Guru).A copy of the Granth is kept in every Gurudwara. After the Tenth Guru, the Granth is worshipped as the mystic personality of the Gurus.
The main shrine of the Sikhs is the Golden Temple of Amritsar, in Punjab, where Sikhism has a real hold. The Temple foundations were Laid by the Fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das (1534-1581).
In 1699 Guru Govind Singh introduced the Initiation Rite, drinking sugared water ("amrit"), and abolished caste distinctions. Sikhs were to be distinguished by their name, always with the suffix Singh (lion), and by the five K's: unshorn hair and beard ("kes"), comb in the hair ("kangh"), steel bangle on the right wrist ("kara"), short drawers ("kacch") and steel dagger ("kirpan").
Guru Govind Singh was also responsible for giving the Sikh Religion a marked military character. The soldier-saint became the ideal of the Khalsa or Sikh fraternity. "When all other means have failed, it is righteous to draw the sword", was one of the basic principles of Guru Govind Singh.
The teachings of the Adi Granth:
"There is one God, Eternal Truth is His Name; Maker of all things, fearing nothing and at enmity with nothing; Timeless is His Image; Not begotten, being of His own being; By the grace of the Guru made known to men. As he was in the beginning, the Truth; So throughout the ages He ever has been, the Truth; So even now he is the Truth Immanent; So for ever and ever, He shall be Truth Eternal."
These words express the basic belief of Sikhs. Idolatry is forbidden. True worship consists in singing God's praises and in meditating on His Name. To realise Him speculation is useless, and so are also all pilgrimages, fasting and celibacy.